Electroencephalogram

EEG: electro + encephalo + gram:

Electro: Represented in electrical units like Voltagr or Current.

Encephalo- Related to brain.

Gram- The record book of brain signals.

EEG

Electroencephalogram is a noninvasive test for measuring the electrical activity (patterns) of the brain, where Electroencephalography is the technique for recording and interpreting it.

Epilepsy Standards

Epilepsy and Seizure Standard & Guidelines.

Epilepsy Reference Websites

Epilepsy and Seizure Reference & Informative Websites.

Epilepsy Publications

Publications, Journals, & Magazines.

Epilepsy Awareness

Epilepsy Awareness Campaigns and Social Networks.

Infographics & Products

Infographics, Educational Materials, Videos & Supportive Products

EEG Resources

EEG Resources and Informative Websites.

Epilepsy Standards & Guidelines  

Working in accordance with unified and unanimous regulations of the most important scientists, researchers and doctors in the world have contributed to providing medical services to patients with epilepsy and seizures in an optimal manner. Most important epilepsy international bodies and agencies that set standards and guidelines are:

  • International League Against Epilepsy: ILAE disseminates the latest original research findings and breakthroughs in the cure for epilepsy and related seizure.  
  • International Bureau for Epilepsy: IBE is a leading international organizations working in epilepsy  
  • World Health Organization: WHO's primary role is to direct international health within the United Nations' system and to lead partners in global health responses.  
  • American Clinical Neurophysiology Society: ACNS empowers members to advance the science, practice and profession of clinical neurophysiology.  
  • American Epilepsy Society: AES a community of professionals engaged in the understanding, diagnosis, study, prevention, treatment and cure, with the goal of improving outcomes for persons with epilepsy.  
  • American Academy of Neurology: AAN is the world’s largest association of neurologists and neuroscience professionals, with members dedicated to and promoting the highest quality care and enhancing member career satisfaction.  

Epilepsy and Seizure Reference & Informative Websites  

There is no doubt that the existence of many websites that provide useful information about epilepsy and seizures is very important for those looking for information, but it is compelling that these sites be reliable, highly credible and accredited to ensure the information is correct, accurate and up-to-date. Here is a list of the most important epilepsy dedicated websites (or sections within) that you may refer to in case you need to know any information about epilepsy and convulsions (seizure). Note that, we cannot be responsible for the content of other sites:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC is the national public health agency of the United States. It is a U.S. federal agency, under the department of health and human services. CDC is dedicated to protecting health and promoting quality of life through prevention and control of disease, injury, and disability.  
  • Epilepsy Foundation: Improves and save lives through community services, public education, access to care campaign, research initiatives, and new therapies funding.  
  • CURE Epilepsy: Its mission is to find a cure for epilepsy, by promoting and funding patient-focused research. It identifies and fund cutting-edge research, challenging scientists worldwide to collaborate and innovate in pursuit of a cure for epilepsy. Since being founded in 1998, CURE Epilepsy has been at the forefront of epilepsy research, raising more than $78 million to fund research and other initiatives.  
  • National Association of Epilepsy Centers: Epilepsy centers provide a comprehensive team approach to the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy.  
  • National Institute for Children's Health Quality: NICHQ is a project to improve access to comprehensive, coordinated healthcare and related services for children with epilepsy in medically underserved areas.  
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: The mission of NINDS is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease.  
  • Epilepsy Action: A charity that improves the lives of everyone affected by epilepsy.  
  • Edmonton Epilepsy Association: Comprehensive Epilepsy Information Booklet Series.  
  • The Charlie Foundation for Ketogenic Therapies: provides information on the ketogenic diet treatment for epilepsy, including educational programs and training seminars for health care professionals, research support, and patient education materials  
  • Child Neurology Foundation: A patient advocate organization. The foundation provides funding for research and educational programs for patients and families.  
  • Epilepsy Leadership Council: ELC is a broad collation of consumer, governmental, health professional, and advocacy organizations working to improve care for and advocate for people with epilepsy and their caregivers.  
  • Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation: A not-for-profit federation, managing five National Specialty Societies that deal with the management and prevention of neurologic conditions and diseases.  
  • International League Against Epilepsy: ILAE disseminates the latest original research findings and breakthroughs in the cure for epilepsy and related seizure.  
  • International Bureau for Epilepsy: IBE is a leading international organizations working in epilepsy  
  • World Health Organization: WHO's primary role is to direct international health within the United Nations' system and to lead partners in global health responses.  
  • American Clinical Neurophysiology Society: ACNS empowers members to advance the science, practice and profession of clinical neurophysiology.  
  • American Epilepsy Society: AES a community of professionals engaged in the understanding, diagnosis, study, prevention, treatment and cure, with the goal of improving outcomes for persons with epilepsy.  
  • American Academy of Neurology: AAN is the world’s largest association of neurologists and neuroscience professionals, with members dedicated to and promoting the highest quality care and enhancing member career satisfaction.  

Publications, Journals, & Magazines  

A compiled list of high-quality medical journals and publications related to epilepsy and neurology in both basic and clinical level:

  • PubMed: A service of National Library of Medicine which comprises more than 32 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.  
  • Epilepsia: is the journal of the International League Against of Epilepsy. Each issue contains original peer reviewed articles, progress in epilepsy research, editorial commentaries, special supplements, meeting reports, book reviews and announcements.  
  • Epilepsy Currents: The Journal of the American Epilepsy Society. It is a bi-monthly open access current-awareness journal providing reviews, commentaries and abstracts from the world's literature on the research and treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy Currents surveys and comments on all important research and developments in a format that is easy to read and reference.  
  • Epilepsy & Behavior: An international journal uniquely devoted to the rapid dissemination of the most current information available on the behavioral aspects of seizures and epilepsy.  
  • Brain&Life: A free public service of the American Academy of Neurology. It offers the latest news and resources on specific neurologic disorders and brain health.  
  • Lancet: It was launched in May, 2002, and is a lively monthly journal of original research, review, opinion, and news covering international issues relevant to neurologists worldwide.  
  • Epilepsy Research: It provides publication of high quality articles in both basic and clinical epilepsy research, with a special emphasis on translational research that ultimately relates to epilepsy as a human condition.  
  • Epileptic Disorders: A peer-reviewed journal publishing articles on all aspects of the epilepsies, from basic investigation to clinical reports, and data from related disciplines such as neurology, neuropediatrics, neuroimaging, genetics and pharmacology.  
  • Seizure: The European Journal for Epilepsy, Seizure, provides an international forum for the publication of peer-reviewed papers on topics related to epilepsy, including the basic sciences, the differential diagnosis, natural history and epidemiology of seizures, the investigation and practical management of epilepsy.  
  • BMJ Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry: An international journal publishing the latest research and reviews on all areas of neurological sciences.  
  • Epilepsy & Behavior: An international journal uniquely devoted to the rapid dissemination of the most current information available on the behavioral aspects of seizures and epilepsy.  

Epilepsy Awareness Campaigns  

A short list of International Awareness Campaigns and Social Networks:

  • Out of the Shadows: A Global Campaign against Epilepsy, with mission to improve acceptability, treatment, services and prevention of epilepsy worldwide.  
  • International Epilepsy Day: A joint initiative created by the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It is a global event celebrated annually on the 2nd Monday of February, to promote awareness on epilepsy right around the world.  
  • Purple Day: Cassidy Megan created the idea of Purple Day in 2008, motivated by her own struggles with epilepsy. Cassidy’s goal is to get people talking about epilepsy in an effort to dispel myths and inform those with seizures that they are not alone.  
  • #ShareMySeizure An education and awareness initiative conducted cooperatively between the Epilepsy Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  
  • Epilepsy Matters: An American-based public awareness group with a particular focus on epilepsy. It have been in operation for over 10 years, helping hundreds of people living with epilepsy find peace of mind.  
  • SUDEP Action: Focuses their efforts on the priorities that bereaved families tell them to prevent deaths; to be supported and to be involved.  
  • E-Action: Is providing education on seizures, featuring inspirational patient stories, and addressing topics important to people who are touched by epilepsy, E-Action® aims to break down barriers.  
  • 50 million steps: An initiative of IBE (International Bureau for Epilepsy). It aimed to walk 50 million steps to raise awareness, to improve visibility and increase understanding of epilepsy. – a step for every person affected by epilepsy in the world. It Started on Monday, January 4th and ended on International Epilepsy Day 2021 – Monday February 8th.  
  • PURPLE BENCH INITIATIVE: As an example of the 50 million steps awareness campaign mentioned above, Purple Bench Initiative members and local partners participated in the 50 Million Steps epilepsy awareness campaign and recorded their steps. Moreover, purple bench initiative, is driven by a single goal: To empower, making a difference through awareness and to provide a support system for individuals, families, communities and institutions.  
  • MyEpilepsyTeam: A social network for those living with epilepsy, giving emotional support from others, to gain practical advice and insights on managing treatment or therapies for epilepsy.  

Epilepsy Infographics  

We should all share and publish everything that may be useful for raising awareness of epilepsy, and circulate it on a large scale, so that the benefit and information prevail. From this standpoint, the following are very useful:

Epilepsy Awareness Posters Carousel

Please note that these posters are illustrative only, as well as statistics contained in, and may not apply to the rest of the world. They have been used here for elucidative purpose only.

Materials & Educational Videos

  • The Center for Epilepsy and Seizure Education in BC: Epilepsy Education Videos produced by the Center for Seizure and Epilepsy Education in British Columbia, in partnership with the Canadian Epilepsy Alliance.  
  • Epilepsy Foundation.  
  • KidsHealth: Animated Epilepsy Videos To Watch With Your Child  
  • Epilepsy Action:    
  • ILAE:   International League Against Epilepsy
  • The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network.  
  • BC Epilepsy Society.  
  • International Epilepsy Day.  
  • Child Neurology Foundation.  

Epilepsy and Seizure Supportive Products & Tools

Here is a non-exhaustive list for some of the commercial products which can be useful and helpful for people suffering from seizure and epilepsy. Please note that Monitors, alarms and safety products don’t guarantee safety or detection of all seizures, but they can provide peace of mind for some people. We do not endorse any of these products, and their use and benefit remain subject to your doctor's advice.

  • embrace2: A product of Empatica Inc. Embrace2 is an FDA-cleared wrist-worn wearable in epilepsy. It detects possible convulsive seizures and instantly alerts caregivers, whether they're sleeping next door or are living miles away.  
  • PERS with Fall Detection: A product of MedScope. Those with a history of falls, fainting or seizures may benefit from this home-based device. Upon detecting a fall, the Fall Detection device alerts response operators, even when the button cannot be pressed.  
  • e-pill: Provides medication meminder products.  
  • Medisafe’s: With Medisafe, you get personalized reminders for each of your medications and vital drug interaction warnings. Stay connected to your caregivers through real-time missed medication alerts.  
  • Danmar Products: Protective products and custom head protection, mainly hard-shell helmets, some with chin or face guards, which can be used for people with seizure.  
  • Headgear: Plum Enterprises, Inc. produces custom head protection, mainly hard-shell helmets, some with chin or face guards (protective headgear, hip protectors).  
  • EasylinkUK: Medpage T/A Easylink UK are suppling assistive care technologies (Telecare), to aid care of the elderly and people with special needs. Easylink manufactures several kinds of epilepsy alarms.  
  • Apple Watch Series 6: It can monitor your heart rate, measure blood oxygen levels, detect that you’ve fallen and notify your emergency contacts with your location (not all functions are enabled for use as an alert in some countries).  
  • NightWatch: It is intended for patients, parents, couples and healthcare professionals who are seeking an effective way of being alerted to possible severe nocturnal epileptic seizures in a timely manner. It can be connected to various external devices such as medical call systems and mobile phone modules and also to the internet so that you can obtain a readout of the wearer’s heart rate and motion data.  
  • Emfit: By Epi USA. is a manufacturer of movement activity and bed occupancy monitors for home and institutional care. The Emfit Epileptic Sensor Mat is a bed monitoring system that will monitor a sleeping adult or child’s convulsive seizures from under the mattress. It can detect both the person’s tonic-clonic seizures and if the person leaves the bed, with the same sensor. It alarms when the person has convulsive movements and when the person falls out of, or leaves the bed and does not return within a preset time.  
  • Epilepsy Wellbeing Map: This resource is supported by UCB Australia. It is developed by Australian neurologists, epilepsy nurses and patient organisations. The Map is a tool to help you to prepare for consultations with your health care team, so that you can help them understand how living with epilepsy impacts you.  
  • SeizAlarm: Seizure Detection for the iPhone & Apple Watch. SeizAlarm is a seizure detection app which allows those with epilepsy and other seizure disorders to alert emergency contacts automatically when seizure-like motion or a concerning heart rate is detected.  
  • Sleep-Safe: Safety pillows (anti-suffocation pillows) have small holes. They may help you breathe more easily than a normal pillow if you are lying face down when having a seizure.  
  • Remap: Pram security systems can stop a pram or pushchair rolling away if you let go of the handle during a seizure.  
  • Seizure Tracker / Website and Mobile App: It is designed to provide patients, doctors and researchers with free comprehensive tools to help understand relationships between seizure activity and anti-epileptic medications. Patients can create personalized reports of logged seizure activity and medication history that can be shared with their medical team. The mobile app version of this system allows users to record seizure activity as it happens with the Seizure Tracker. Having a seizure recorder handy can improve the accuracy of the data you collect and help to inform better treatment decisions. Note, this system is not designed to alert to seizure activity, but only to improve tracking.  

Electroencephalogram “EEG” Resources  

A list of websites which can provide helpful and useful information about EEG for patients, caregivers, healthcare practitioners, doctors and the public.

  • ILAE: International League Against Epilepsy EEG Guidelines and Reports.  
  • Epilepsy Foundation:  
  • Mayo Clinic:  
  • Johns Hopkins:  
  • ACNS: American Clinical Neurophysiology Society  
  • Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology:  
  • The Neurophysiology Society:  
  • ANTA: Association of Neurophysiological Technologists of Australia  
  • OSET: International Organisation of Societies for Electrophysiological Technology  
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence:  
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information (Several pages):  

Recommended EEG Books

If you are interested in obtaining more information about Electroencephalogram EEG, or studying it in depth to know all its aspects and everything related to it from a scientific point of view, then you should review one of the following books that will give you the detailed explanation and comprehensive instructions. N.B. the books are randomly listed and not based on preference.

  • Niedermeyer's Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields: By Donald L. Schomer (Editor), Fernando H. Lopes da Silva (Editor).
  • Practical Approach to Electroencephalography: By Mark H. Libenson.
  • Clinical Neurophysiology: By MISRA.
  • Electric Fields of the Brain: The Neurophysics of EEG: By Paul L. Nunez & Ramesh Srinivasan.
  • EEG Technology: By R. Cooper, J W Osselton & J C Shaw.
  • Fisch and Spehlmann’s EEG Primer: Basic Principles of Digital and Analog EEG: By Bruce Fisch.
  • Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design: By John G. Webster (Editor), Amit J. Nimunkar (Editor).
  • Atlas of EEG Patterns: By John M. Stern MD.
  • Practical Guide for Clinical Neurophysiologic Testing. EEG: By Thoru Yamada & Elizabeth Meng.
  • Primer of EEG With A Mini-Atlas: By A. James Rowan & Eugene Tolunsky.
  • Atlas of Artifacts in Clinical Neurophysiology: By A. William Tatum.

Biomedresearches (bmr’S) EEG Educational Materials.

Understanding EEG Video Series:  

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