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Epilepsy Awareness Program - Neurophysiology

The purpose of this page is to give a brief description of the Neuro Science and Neurophysiology, it is not meant to be a complete medical reference, and rather, it is like a pave to the reader to understand the mechanism and Physiology of our human body which have direct relation to Epilepsy and Seizures.

 


Neurophysiology Definitions:

In this section, we are going to explore in brief the different branches associated with Neurology and Neurophysiology such as Electrophysiology and Neuroscience.

 

Neurophysiology

Clinical neurophysiology

Electrophysiology

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Neuroscience

 

Neurophysiology

 

Is the study of nervous system function, Primarily, it is connected with neurobiology, psychology, neurology, clinical neurophysiology, electrophysiology, biophysical neurophysiology, ethology, neuroanatomy, cognitive science and other brain sciences.

 

Clinical Neurophysiology

 

Clinical neurophysiology is an area of medicine that is concerned with testing the electrical functions of the brain, spinal cord and the nerves in the limbs and muscles. This is done to help in the diagnosis of a wide range of conditions affecting these parts of the body. Clinical neurophysiology has close links with neurology, which deals with diseases of the nervous system and muscles.

Clinical neurophysiology is used for the study of the functions of the nervous system in the clinical setting, for diagnostics, intensive care, and intraoperative monitoring, etc. It utilizes techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER), etc.

 

Electrophysiology

 

Is the measurement of the electrical activity of neurons, and particularly action potential activity. It is also refers to any test that measures nerve transmission rates.
Many particular electrophysiological readings have specific names but we will be concerned here only about Electroencephalography or usually referred as EEG.

 

Electroencephalography (EEG)

 

Is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study.
The electrical activity of the brain can be described in spatial scales from the currents within a single dendritic spine to the relatively gross potentials that the EEG records from the scalp.
Neurons, or nerve cells, are electrically active cells that are primarily responsible for carrying out the brain's functions. Neurons create action potentials, which are discrete electrical signals that travel down axons and cause the release of chemical neurotransmitters at the synapse, which is an area of near contact between two neurons. This neurotransmitter then activates a receptor in the dendrite or body of the neuron that is on the other side of the synapse, the post-synaptic neuron. The neurotransmitter, when combined with the receptor, typically causes an electrical current within the dendrite or body of the post-synaptic neuron. Thousands of post-synaptic currents from a single neuron's dendrites and body then sum up to cause the neuron to generate an action potential. This neuron then synapses on other neurons, and so on.

 

Neuroscience

 

is the scientific study of the nervous system. The scope of neuroscience has broadened to include different approaches used to study the molecular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, and medical aspects of the nervous system. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from biophysical and molecular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks. In another words, Neuroscience can also be defined as The scientific study of the brain and nervous system

 

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See Also: Epilepsy Health Corner

See Also: Epilepsy Diagnosis on the Clinical Practic

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